Cultural Resources

The term cultural resources refers to properties such as archeological sites, buildings, and landscapes that, by their nature, potentially possess significant historical value. One of the earlier environmental laws enacted in the The United States was the Antiquities Act of 1906, which required the protection of cultural resources on federal land. Today, Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 extends protections not only on federal land but also to all public and private development projects should they involve a federal undertaking (i.e., federal funds or the issuance of a federal permit). Some examples of federal undertakings that commonly trigger Section 106 compliance include:

  • USACE Section 404 Permits
  • Federal Housing Administration Loans and Housing and Urban
  • Development tax credits
  • US Department of Agriculture, Rural Development Grants
  • Federal Energy Regulatory Commission NEPA process
  • Federal Communications Commission NEPA process

Cultural resources are protected at the state level as well. In Texas, lands owned or controlled by an entity chartered under state law (i.e., cities, counties, water/power/utility districts, and authorities, etc.) must comply with the Antiquities Code of Texas. Compliance requires coordination with the Texas Historical Commission impacts, prior to the initiation of ground-disturbing activities, to address project impacts.

Services Provided

Baer Engineering’s staff includes professional registered archeologists and historians with over 20 years of experience assisting clients with the cultural resources compliance process. Baer provides the following services:

  • Prior to the design phase of your project
    • identify documented cultural resources, and
    • provide guidance on potential permitting constraints for your project.
  • During the design phase
    • assist in navigating the overlapping jurisdictions of agency coordination to better define the compliance process as it pertains to your project.
  • If required by the Texas Historical Commission
    • conduct archeological and building surveys to identify and assess potential impacts to cultural resources, and
    • develop mitigation or treatment plans should they be warranted.

For our federal agency clients who are mandated by the National Historic Preservation Act and other federal regulations to provide for the long-term protection and preservation of historic properties, we offer a wide range of cultural resources services tailored to your individual management needs including:

  • Phase I Archeological Surveys
  • Phase II Archeological National Register Testing
  • Phase III Archeological Data Recovery
  • Historic Context Development
  • Historic Buildings Surveys
  • HABS/HAER Documentation
  • Native American Consultation
  • Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) Investigations
  • Development of Program Alternatives and Programmatic Agreement Documents
  • Interpretive Exhibits and Public Engagement
  • Materials Curation
  • Cultural Resources Evaluation
  • Comprehensive Research Design
  • NAGPRA Compliance
  • Archaeological Construction Monitoring 
  • Historical Cemetery Investigations
  • Geoarcheological  Analysis
  • Artifact Stabilization and Analysis
  • Reporting
  • Collection and Database Management

Project Profiles

The U.S. Air Force required a survey of a small arms range at Mountain Home AFB in Elmore County, Idaho. The survey provided an inventory of, and potential effects assessment to, archaeological sites, in compliance with Section 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act, and with regulations set forth under 36 CFR Part 800 by the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. During the survey, archeologists identified seven new archeological sites and evaluated them for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) based on criteria established under 36 CFR, Section 60.4. They also identified 108 isolated finds, which by definition are not eligible for inclusion in the National Register because they lack demonstrable association with a context for significance.

The U.S. Air Force required a Phase I archaeological inventory of 190 acres across Avon Park Air Force Range, Highlands and Polk Counties, Florida. The project also required Phase II testing for an archaeological site in the same location. Baer Engineering performed a Phase I cultural resources survey and archaeological inventory that consisted of a pedestrian survey and excavation of 854 shovel tests covering approximately 189.83 acres on six selected noncontiguous tracts within APAFR. Phase II testing and evaluation was conducted on a single previously recorded site, 8HG1107. In the course of the Phase II evaluation, eight 1m x 2m units were excavated, yielding 642 artifacts. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the site’s eligibility for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places. Findings deemed the site eligible for inclusion in the Register. Geospatial data collected during execution included survey area boundaries, probability zone divisions, location of positive shovel tests, Phase II site datums, and georeferenced site maps. Data were processed in Florida and Texas and checked for accuracy. Deliverables included maps and tables derived from these data. Digital copies of these data were submitted as a CD to the APAFR GIS specialist and with the archived report. Polygons and data tables associated with new and updated archaeological sites were delivered to the FMSF office. All data were in UTM, Zone 17, NAD 83, with planar units in meters. Following the completion of this project and acceptance of the final report by the FDHR, all artifacts, field and laboratory notes, analysis sheets, records, photographs, and a photo-ready copy of the final report were transferred to the Avon Park CRM for in-house curation. The contractor cataloged and curated all materials following State of Florida guidelines. All artifacts were cleaned, dried, stabilized, and packaged in 4-mil resealable-closure polyethylene bags with acid-free labels denoting project, artifact, and provenience information placed inside, with the same information marked clearly and legibly on the exterior of each bag. The Baer team submitted these materials to the CRM for in-house final curation, packaged in cubic-foot acid-free boxes, clearly labeled by project, agency, dates, and FMSF numbers of enclosed sites, with a list of field specimen/sample (FS) numbers. Each box was accompanied by an inventory or packing list on acid-free/lignin-free paper. Original field notes, maps, photographs, and other documentation accompanied the collections of artifacts and other materials and were boxed in the same manner. Oversized maps or aerial photographs were rolled and stored in cardboard map tubes.

Violet Crown Trail Archeological Services
The Violet Crown Trail represents the vision of the Hill Country Conservancy (HCC) to get people out on the land so they can experience the natural beauty of the Texas Hill Country. The 30-mile trail provides a unique Hill Country recreational experience through the urban wildlands of the Barton Creek Wilderness Park, the City of Sunset Valley and Hays County, while surrounding people in wildlife, clean streams, and breathtaking views.

Project partners included a broad range of government agencies and nonprofit organizations that were involved in the project from initial concept development, research, planning, and construction.

Baer Engineering obtained a Texas Antiquities permit and conducted archeological investigations of the proposed trails, which traversed through areas of existing green space and municipal parks in western Travis County. Work included a thorough examination of existing archeological and historical records in order to develop a field research plan. Field surveys were conducted along the proposed corridor of the trail to document and evaluate cultural properties, and resulted in the discovery and recording of several archeological sites and cultural features. Treatment recommendations for these properties were coordinated with the Texas Historical Commission, Texas Parks and Wildlife, and the Texas Department of Transportation, and the comments of these agencies were incorporated into an Environmental Information Document for public comment.


MATOC 2014 Projects – Various Locations
Baer Engineering provided archaelogical and historical cultural resource management services in support of
AFCEC at multiple locations in the continental U.S., including Hill AFB, Eareckson Air Station, Moody AFB,
Peterson AFB, McConnell AFB, Scott AFB, and Ellsworth AFB. Services included archaelogical historic
preservation, HABS/HAER documentation, archival digitization of military cultural resource artifacts and
records, and Native American consultation, among others. Contract Amount: $3,997,870

Cultural Resources Survey at Nellis AFB, NV
Baer performed an intensive archaeological survey of three target areas in Range 71 North, resulting in the
recording of 25 prehistoric archaeological sites. Three sites were considered eligible for the National Register
of Historical Places. Baer conducted a cultural resources inventory to document cultural features in the Range
71 Desert Operation Area of the Nevada Test and Training Range. Baer assisted in addressing Section 106
requirements for federal management of military lands. Contract Amount: $65,750.88


A historic cairn at one of the seven sites documented during the Mountain Home AFB survey.

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Cistern feature at one of the sites documented during the Avon Park Air Force Range survey.


Fence-to-Fence Environmental Services at Holloman and Cannon AFBs, NM
Baer Engineering was the lead firm for this contract. The objective of this project was to provide the services
needed to execute the Air Force Environmental Quality program at the two bases. The scope provided for
environmental and cultural resources conservation, environmental compliance, pollution prevention, and
environmental operations and maintenance support activities necessary to support Air Force and AFCEC
environmental mission requirements. Contract Amount: $2,402,140

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MATOC 2013 Projects - Various Locations
Baer Engineering provided archaelogical and historical cultural resource management services in support of
AFCEC at multiple locations in the continental U.S., including Mountain Home AFB, Kirtland AFB, Eareckson Air
Station, Avon Park AFB, and Barrow, AK. Services included post-fire cultural resources surveying, GIS support
for cultural resources data sets, and development of heritage resource inventories, among others.
Contract Amount: $309,333 (Fee)

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